n the United States were perpetrated using a firearm.Incarce 1bration x1b Characteristics of offenders vary from the average for specific types of cri x1b mes and specific cr x1b imes. In terms of vi x1b olent crime by gender, in 2011, 80.4% of arrested persons were male and 19.6% x1b were female. 1b Males were 88.2% of those arrested for homicide, while x1b females we re x1b 11.8%. Among those a x1b rrested for rape in 2011, males were 98.8% and females were 1.2%. For property crime in 2011, 62.9% of arre sted persons were male and 37.1% were female. x1b 1b For x1b violent crime by race in 2011, 59.4% of thos 1be arrested were white, 38.3% were black, and 2.2% were of other races. For persons arres ted for homicide in 2011, 49.7% were black, 48% were white, and 2.3% were of other races. For persons ar x1b rested for rape in x1b 2011, 65% were w x1b hite, 32.9% were black, and 2.1% were of other r 1baces. For property crime in 2011, 68.1% of arrested persons were white, 29.5% were blac k, and 2.4% were of other races.In 2011, law x1b enforcement repor x1b ted 6,222 bias-motivated incidents, known as hate crime x1b s, for which 5,731 x1b offenders were identified. Of these , x1b 59% were white, 20.9% were black, 7.1% were of vario 1bus races, 1.4% were Asian or Pac x1b ific Islanders, 0.8% were Native American, and 10.8% were of x1b unknown race. Reporting at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association (August 3, 2008), sociologists at Bowling Green State Univers x1b ity found x1b that men who attend college are more likely to comm x1b it property crimes during their college years than their non-college-attending peers. The r x1b esearch draws from three waves of data from the Nation 1bal Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and examines education, crime levels, substance x1b abuse and socializing among adolescents a x1b nd young adults. Also, x1b according to Naci Mocan of the University of Colorado and Erdal Tekin of Geo x1b rgia State University, "We find that unattractive individuals commit more crime in comparison to average-looking ones, and very attractive indivi x1b duals commit less crime in comparison to those who are ave 1brage-looking."[3For 2012 x1b , law enforcement made approximately 12 x1b ,200,000 arrests nationa x1b lly, down 200,000 from 2011. Arreste 1bd offenders in the United States tend to be male, x1b  over age 18, and white, mirroring th e x1b general population. Based on a comparison with race and ethnicity data from the 2010 Census, black x1b s disproportionately commit more crimes than av e x1b rage, Native Americans commit slightly more cr 1bimes than average, 1b whites commit slightly fewer crim x1b es than average, and Asians and Pacific Islander s x1b commit fewer crimes than average.Each state has a set of statutes en 1bforceable within its own borders. A state has no jurisdiction outside of it x1b s borders, even though still in x1b the United States. It must request extradition fr 1bom the state 1b in which the suspect has fled. In 2014, there were 186 ,873 felony suspects outside specific states jurisdiction against whom no extradition would x1b be sought. Philadelphia h 1bas about 20,000 of these since it is near a border with four other states. The cost of ex x1b tradition x1b is estimated to cost a few hundred dollars per case. C x1b haracteristics of offenders I x1b n the long term, violent crime in th x1b e United x1b States has been in x1b decline since x1b colonial times. x1b However, x1b during the early 20th century, crime rate s in x1b the United x1b States were higher compared to parts of Western Europe. For example, 198 homicides were recorded in the American city of Chicago in 16, a x1b city of slightly over 2 x1b mill x1b ion at the time. This level of crime was not exceptional when compared to other American cities such as New York, but was x1b much x1b higher x1b relative to European cities, such as London, whic 1bh then had 1bthree times t[[ 1bm3]]he population x1b but recorded only 45 homicides in the same year. .