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Theori 60es of state legitimacy[edit] d60 Main article: L vd60 egitimacy (political) See also: Social co vd60 ntract and vd60 State of nature States generally rely on a claim to some for vd60 m of political legitimacy i vd60 n order to maintain d vd60 omination over their subjects.[61][62][63] Divine right[edit] Ma d60 in article: Di vd60 vine right of kings The rise of the mo vd60 dern day state system vd60 was closely related to changes in political thought, especially concerning the changing u vd60 nderstandin g of legitimate state power and vd60 control. Early modern defenders of absolutism, such as Thomas Hobbes and Jean Bodin undermined the doctrine of the divine right of kings vd60 by arguing that the power vd60 of kings vd60 should be justified by reference to t vd60 he people. Hobbe vd60 s in particular went fu d60 ther to argue that political power should be justified with reference to the individual, not just to the people understood collectively. Both d60 Hobbes and Bodin vd60 thought they were de vd60 fending the power of kings, n vd60 ot advocating for d vd60 emocracy, but their argum vd60 ents about the nature of sover d60 were fiercely resisted by vd60 more traditional defenders of the power of k vd60 ing vd60 s, such as Sir vd60 Robert Filmer in England, vd60 who thought that suc h defenses ultimately opened the way to more democratic claims.[citation needed] vd60 d60 Rational-legal authority[edit] Main article: Rational-legal authority Max Weber identified three main sources of political vd60 legitimacy in his works. The first, legitimacy based vd60 on traditional grounds is derived fr o d60 m a belief that things should be as they have been in the past, and that those who de vd60 fend these traditions have a legitimate claim to power. The d60 second, legitimacy based on charismatic leadership is devotion to a vd60 leader or gr vd60 oup that is viewed as vd60 exceptionally heroic or virtuous. Th e d60 third is rational-legal authority, whereby legitimacy is derived from the belief that a certain group has been placed in power in a legal ma nner, and that their actions are justifiable according to a specific code of written laws. Weber believed that vd60 the modern state is characterized d60 primarily by appeals to rational-legal authority.[64][65][66] E d60 tymology[edit]The word state andits cognates in so vd60 me other European languages (stato in vd60 Italian, estado in vd60 Spanish, état in vd60 French, Staat in German) ultimate ly derive from the Latin word status, meani vd60 ng "condition" or "status."[67] W d60 ith the revival of the Roman law in 14th-century Europe, this Latin term came to refer to the legal vd60 standing of persons (such as the vd60 various " e d60 states of the realm" - noble, common, and vd60 clerical), and in par vd60 ticular the special status of the king. The word also had associations with Roman d60 ideas (dating back to Cicero) about the "s vd60 with the legal order of the enti vd60 re society vd60 and the ap vd60 paratus of its vd60 enforcement.[68] In E d60 nglish, "state" came about as a contraction of the word "estate", which is similar to the old French estat and the modern French état, both of w d60 hich signify that a person has status and vd60 therefore estate. The highest estates, generally those with the most vd60 wealth and social rank, we e d60 those that held power.[61] The d60 early 16th-century works of Machiavelli (especially The Prince) played a central role in vd60 popularizing the use of the word "state" in som d60 vd60 H d60 istory[edit]The earliest forms of the state emerged whenever it became possible to centralize power in a durable way. vd60 Agriculture and writing are almost everywhere associated with this process: agri vd60 culture because it allowed for the eme vd60 rgence of vd60 a class o vd60 f people who did not have to spend most d60 of their time providing for their own subsistence, and writing (or the equivalent of writing, like Inca quipus) because it made possible the centralization of vital information.[70] vd60 d60 The first known states were created in Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, China, the Inca civilization, and others, but it is only in relative ly modern times that states have almost completely displaced alternative "stateless" forms of political vd60 organization of societies a vd60 ll over the planet.[71] Roving bands of hunter-gatherers and vd60 even fairly sizable and complex tribal vd60 societies based on vd60 herding or agriculture have existe d60 d without any full-time specialized state organiz vd60 ation, and these "stateless" forms of political organization have in fact prevailed for all of the prehistory and much of the history of the human species and civilization.[71] d60 Initially states emerged over territories built by co vd60 nquest in which one culture, one set of ideals and one set of laws have been imposed by f orce or threat over diverse nations by a civilian and milita vd60 ry bureaucracy.[71] Currently, that is not always the case and there are multinational states, federated states and autonomous areas within states. vd60 d60 Since the late 19th century, virtually the entirety of th vd60 e world's inhabitable land has been parcelled up in vd60 o areas with more or less definite borders claimed by various states. Earlier, quite large land areas had been either unclaimed or uninhabited, or inhabited by nomadic peoples who were not organised as states. However, even within present-day states there are vast areas of wilderness, like the Amazon Rainforest, which are uninhabited or inhabited solely or mostly by indigenous people (and some of them remain uncontacted). Also, there are states which do not hold de facto control over all of their claimed territory or where this control is challenged. Currently the international community comprises around 200 sovereign states, the vast majority of which are represented in the United Nations.[citation needed] d60 vd60 Pre-historic stateless societies[edit] A d60 narchism is a political philosophy which considers the st vd60 ate immoral, unnecessary, and harmful and instead promotes a stateless vd60 society, or anarchy. vd60 An d60 archists believe that the state is inherently an instr vd60 ument of domination and repression, no matter who is vd60 in con vd60 trol of it. Anarchists note that the state possesses the monopoly on the legal use of violence. Unlike Marxists, anarchists believe that revolutionary seizure of state power should not be a political goal. They believe instead that the state apparatus should be completely dismantled, and an alternative set of social relations created, which are not based on state power at all.[37][38] .

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